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福州ag最大网赌平台|官方网站培训作者:朗阁海外考试中心 时间:2016-10-20 11:51

摘要:1 话题概述 全球化指的是世界各国之间的经济文化交流联系更加密切。朗阁海外考试研究中心资深写作专家分析,ag最大网赌平台|官方网站写作考点在于分析多元化国家的利弊,主要体现于 语言,贸易,旅游 这三个方面的利弊影响。 2 历年考试频度 ag最大网赌平台|官方网站写作的全球化类话题基本属于每年必考类,历

 1

话题概述



全球化指的是世界各国之间的经济文化交流联系更加密切。朗阁海外考试研究中心资深写作分析,ag最大网赌平台|官方网站写作考点在于分析多元化国家的利弊,主要体现于语言,贸易,旅游这三个方面的利弊影响。

2

历年考试频度

 

ag最大网赌平台|官方网站写作的全球化类话题基本属于每年必考类,历年频度如下表:

2004: 4/35

2005: 5/36

2006: 4/36

2007: 3/42

2008: 5/46

2009: 4/45

2010: 3/48

2011: 4/47

2012: 6/48

2013: 3/48

2014: 2/48

2015: 4/52

 

2016年频度:

2016

题型

Topic

19

利弊类

国际:各国差异减小(相同的电影,品牌,时尚,广告)

42

单方观点

国际:多文化社会,利大于弊

 

3

考点分析:

 

以下,朗阁海外考试研究中心的资深写作将为大家整理分析2004年至2016年所有全球化类考题。

 

1. 国际文化融合与差异

 

考点题1

Many countries now havepeople from different cultures and ethnic groups. What is the reason for this?Is it a positive or negative development? (121013)

 

题意:国家有不同文化种族的人口。原因,积极or消极?

考点分析:多元文化multiculturalism的好处是促进文化的融合,鼓励思维的多样性,带动社会创新。而缺点则可能导致文化同化culturalassimilation, 会导致民族间的文化冲突cultural conflict

 

近似题:

1)多重文化的社会(不同种族的人住在一起)利大于弊? (060825=061021=160402)

 

考点题2

Some people regard theincreasing business and cultural contact between countries as a positivedevelopment. Others, however, feel these leading to loss of nationalidentities. Discuss both the views and give your opinion. (040821=051029=150829)

 

题意:国家间商务文化交流有积极影响,还是降低国家特性?

考点分析:商务文化交流的好处是促进商务与文化合作共赢,而缺点则可能导致竞争,带来同化或消亡。

 

近似题:

1)国与国差异减少,人们选择趋向一致(031206=040327=160109)

2)全球的风景变得越来越相似,原因?利大于弊?(090829)

 

2. 语言、贸易、旅游细节考点

以下列举的考点3-7属于考点1与考点2的细节考点,与考点1与考点2语料相通。

 

考点题3:语言

Across the world today, theuse of many languages has been declining. Only a few languages have beenincreasingly used. Is this a positive or negative development? (131116)

 

题意:许多语言使用量减少,少数语言使用量增加,积极或消极?

考点分析:语言的灭绝体现出人类文化交流密切与文化多样性culturaldiversity的丢失。

 

近似题:

1)语言灭绝让人更容易生活,所以不重要 (041030)

2)英语作为国际性语言的利超过弊 (050416)

3)一些人认为应该发明一种国际交流的新语言,利大于弊 (070818)

 

考点题4:贸易

Some people thinkdeveloping countries should invite foreign companies to open branches, officesand factories to promote their economies. Others say that they should keep theforeign companies out and depend more on their own local companies. Describe bothviews and give your opinion. (120107)

 

题意:引进外企or保护本国禁止外企?

考点分析:引进外企,促进合作与竞争,改善地区服务,同时会影响本地企业市场。

 

近似题:

1)跨国公司全球化对每个人都有积极影响 (120209)

 

考点题5:旅游

国际:International tourism hasbecome a huge industry in the world. Do the problems of international traveloutweigh its advantages? (060520)

 

题意:国际旅游成为一个巨大的产业-弊大于利

考点分析:促进就业,推动地区经济文化,同时影响地区环境与生态,以及文化同化与冲突。

 

近似题:

1)国际旅行越便宜,游客越来越多,利弊 (081120=121020)

2)国际性旅游有负面影响,原因措施 (150530)

 

考点题6:旅游偏见

International travel makes people prejudicedmore than board-mind, why does this phenomenon happen? How to improve theunderstanding of countries they visit? (031011=040403=080821=100626=150813)

题意:国际旅行有时会让人们更偏见而不是心胸开阔,原因及措施

考点分析:旅游者自身素质及地区文化宣传与了解不足,引起文化冲突,应从相关方面改善。

 

近似题:

1)去他国旅游,是效仿他国风俗习惯,还是当地应该迎合文化多样性 (050305=050820)

 

考点题7:进口

Asglobal trade increases, many goods, even some daily goods, are exported toanother country, which includes long-distance transport during shipping. Do youthink its benefits outweigh its drawbacks? (081204≈05.11.12)

 

题意:进口商品,利弊

考点略析:促进各国优势资源利用与自身经济发展,改善地区相关服务,带来环境污染,影响本地相关产业。

 

近似题:

1)进口各国食品利大于弊? (080223)

2)国家应自产食物而尽可能少进口 (110226)

3)传统饮食被外国快餐取代对家庭社会产生不良影响 (110623)

 

考点题8:国际援助

Somepeople think that developing countries need financial help from internationalorganizations. Others think that it is practical aid and advice that is needed.Discuss these views and give your own opinion. (090207=090627)

 

题意:给与多种援助而非经济援助

考点略析:深度合作,授之以渔。

 

近似题:

有人认为资助贫困国家弊大于利 (071124=131010)

慈善援助应向迫切的地区or本国 (100109=091121=150606)

 

与其他话题合并性题:

1)全球合作有助于环保还是商业 (080726)

2)国际旅游和贸易促进社会发展 (100617=140821)

3)出国旅游去了解他国or通过电视和互联网 (110127)

4)大多数严峻的问题只能通过国际协作解决 (120121)

5)如今我们面临全世界的各种问题,因此国家之间良好的关系很重要 (070721)

6)各国科学技术趋向同一性,原因及利弊 (121117)

7)学生应该花时间在不同的国家生活和学习不同语言和文化,同意与否 (131121)

 

4

考点论据

 

朗阁海外考试研究中心资深写作分析指出,本类别考题应依据十年同类所有话题考点,进行针对性地道性语料补充,地道素材来源于《the economistThe GuardianNational GeographicThe Atlantic》等。

 

1. 全球化的原因

1经济层面,各个国家生产本国特定优势的产品,通过贸易,可以给进口国和出口国都带来好处。各国经济发展又为贸易旅游及文化方面的全球交流提供物质条件。

2技术层面,互联网、媒体科技、交通工具的迅猛发展促进各国经济文化的密切交流。

3国家层面,随着国家之间的接触增多,国家之间签署一系列合作规章来促进各国发展与国际性问题处理。

 

①原因概述:

At least four factors havecontributed to globalization:

1.technological change, particularly the ICT revolution;

2.the spread of market-based systems;

3.domestic politics—pro-globalization forces are more politicallysignificant; and inter-state rivalries.

 

②原因拓展1

Technological development,from better transportation and carrier services to the telephone and massmedia, has created a smaller, more integrated worldwhich makes the world evensmaller and more integrated. Communications, trade and employment, personal andpolitical transactions are now occurring on a global scale, in real time,ignoring boundaries between states.

 

③原因拓展2

the closer integration ofthe countries and peoples of the world which has been brought about by theenormous reduction of costs of transportation and communication, and thebreaking down of artificial barriers to the flows of goods, services, capital,knowledge, and (to a lesser extent) people across borders.

 

2. 全球化的价值

1经济上,国家与地区经济发展,就业机会增加,产品服务丰富。

2技术上,落后国家因此可以学习发达国家的技术或者企业的管理方法等;而发达国家可以依靠技术移民来补充劳动力。

3政治上和社会上,国家之间的联系增多,有助于和平地协商处理问题。

4文化上,人们开拓视野,增进了解,消除误会,从而可以更融洽地相处。

 

①全球化促进资源有效利用

The booming internationaltrade can closely integrate a wide range of resources of different countries,which enables many nations to share resources to achieve the goal ofcomplementing each other’s strengths. For instance, the international businessmade possible by air travel and telecommunication has enabled businessmen fromless developed countries to introduce the state-of-the-art facilities fromprosperous nations to develop and expand their business. Besides, affluentnations can make full use of the cheaper labor force in impoverished countriesto save the production costs and obtain more economic profits. The effectiveinteraction among countries at different levels has allowed a more sustainabledevelopment of the world.

 

②全球化促进竞争,推动发展

At the same time,globalization creates new possibilities and motivations for local culturalautonomy and identities. This “push down effect” of globalization is the reasonfor the revival of local nationalism and local forms of cultural identity inall parts of the world. It may seem strange but the more we globalize, the morewe localize.

 

3. 全球化的缺点

1)经济:发展中国家的劳动力被剥削,资源被取用,国内产业受到冲击。

2)社会文化:本土文化会被削弱,本土语言会受到威胁,文化多样性会逐步丧失。人们的生活习惯和购买习惯逐渐被改变。

3)环境上,工业化生产和交通量的加大会增加温室气体的排放;旅游人数的增多会对自然环境构成威胁。

 

①全球化引发冲突:

Most importantly, criticsof recent economic globalization see that these developments are not at alloccurring in a vacuum, but feed into ethnic, religious, and factional tensionsthat lead to wars and help breed terrorism. Furthermore, these terrorists, nowglobally interconnected and empowered with knowledge, create a whole newcategory of warfare based, in part, on the disruption of the interconnectionswhich are both created by and necessary for globalization. Some commentatorsbelieve the nation-state is ill-equipped to deal with this emergent threat.

 

②全球化对环境的破坏

The rise in worldwide tradeand the increasing interaction between countries previously separated by tradebarriers have stimulated a significant increase in transportation progresses atall geographical levels. This has caused a wide variety of threats to theenvironment. Thus, a demanding problem of globalization is formed byenvironmental decay caused by the rise in international transportation. Therise in international transportation could be partly blamed on the transport ofglobalized food. As more global corporations take over most of the aspects offarming, local resources and labors of small farms are decreasingly vanishing.This caused the people to buy and eat food that are grown overseas instead ofthe local areas, thus, causing and encouraging the amount of internationaltransportation.

 

③全球化对本地经济的不良影响

The expansion ofmultinational companies accelerating international economic integration canbring remarkable benefits to the local country. During the process ofinteraction with foreign staff in multinationals, local staff can have accessto the state-of-the-art technology, with which they could later create theirown start-up companies or work for local corporations, thereby promotingtechnological advances and economic growth in developing countries. Moreover,they have the opportunity to learn the work ethics of another country, and thenkeep the essence of their cultural conventions, promoting cultural diversity inthe host country.

5

核心词组与论句

以下,朗阁海外考试研究中心资深写作针对此类话题,精选了一些核心话题学术性词汇和词组搭配,并根据核心学术词组搭配核心论句,以便备考时间不充裕的考生直接积累和使用。

 

diversity [daɪ'vɜːsɪtɪ]

n. 多样性;差异

常见学术词组搭配:

culturaldiversity 文化差异 // enormous/extraordinary/rich diversity 巨大/非凡/丰富的多样性 // a wide diversity of 多种多样的 // maintain/preserve diversity保持/保护多样性

ag最大网赌平台|官方网站写作例句:

(1). Tourists andbusinessmen make it possible for different nations to maintain continuouscultural exchanges, which substantially helps with preserving rich diversityin the world.Tips: which引导非限制性定语从句;continuous表示连续不断的;help with doing sth表示有助于做某事)

游客和商人使国家间保持连续不断的文化交流成为可能,大大有助于保护世界丰富多样性的存在。

(2). When a country tendsto develop a closer relationship with the rest of the world, it does notnecessarily give up its culture, or rather it would put more emphasis on theconservation of local features to preserve its cultural identities, so culturaldiversity is actually not damaged but promoted.Tips: when引导时间状语从句;so连接并列句;or rather表示更准确的说;put emphasis on sth表示强调;conservation/preserve表示保护;cultural identities表示文化身份;not...but...表示不是而是)

一个国家与他国发展更亲密的关系并不意味着它会放弃自己的文化,更准确的说,它可能会更加强调保护当地特色及文化身份,所以文化多样性不会被破坏而会被促进。

 

exploit [ɪk'splɒɪt]

vt. 剥削;利用;开发

常见学术词组搭配:

exploitmercilessly/ruthlessly 残忍地剥削 // be open/vulnerable to exploitation 易受到剥削 // struggle againstexploitation 与剥削作斗争 // fully exploit/exploit...to the full 充分开发

ag最大网赌平台|官方网站写作例句:

(1). It is often the casethat jobs multinational corporations provide are not paid as much as they haveto pay for similar jobs in their countries, by which I mean these companies arevirtually making use of the cheaper labor force and ruthlessly exploitingworkers in developing countries.Tips: It is often the case that引导主语从句,表示经常出现的情况;by which I mean引导非限制性定语从句;virtually表示实际上;make use of表示利用;cheap labor force表示廉价劳动力)

经常出现的情况是,跨国公司支付当地员工的工资低于其本国同样工作所得薪水,也就是说这些公司其实是在利用发展中国家的廉价劳动力,残忍地剥削工人。

(2). Due to the backwardeconomic development, employees in underdeveloped countries are usually cheaplabor resources, who are vulnerable to exploitation by employers offoreign enterprises, so inviting them to open branches means allowingexploitation of local residents.Tips: who引导非限制性定语从句;so连接并列句;backward表示落后的;foreign enterprises表示外企;local residents表示当地居民)

由于经济发展落后,欠发达国家的员工通常是廉价劳动力,他们容易受到外企老板的剥削,所以邀请这些公司在本地设立分部就意味着本地居民将会受到剥削。

 

globalization [ˌglobələ'zeʃn]

n. 全球化

常见学术词组搭配:

economic/culturalglobalization 经济/文化全球化 // globalization strategy 全球化战略 // the growing/increasingglobalization 日益增长的全球化 // turn back the tide of globalization 逆转全球化的大趋势 // anti-globalizationgroups 反全球化群体

ag最大网赌平台|官方网站写作例句:

(1). It is undeniable thatthe growing connection and independence of the world’s markets and businessesin contemporary society has made it impossible to turn back the tide ofglobalization.Tips: It is undeniable that引导主语从句表示不可否认;make it impossible to dosth不定式做宾语,it为形式宾语,表示不可能做某事)

不可否认,当今社会世界市场和商业中日益增多的联系和依赖已使全球化成为不可逆转的大趋势。

(2). Anti-globalizationgroups insisting on the negative effects of globalization mainly emphasizeits threat to local industries in underdeveloped countries as well as themulti-culture of different nations.Tips: insisting非谓语动词做后置定语;insist on sth表示坚持认为;underdeveloped countries表示欠发达国家;multi-culture表示多元文化)

坚持认定全球化负面影响的反全球化群体主要强调它对欠发达国家本土产业以及世界多元文化的威胁。

 

impoverished [ɪm'pɒvərɪʃt]

adj.贫穷的,穷困的

常见学术词组搭配:

impoverished/poverty-strickencountries 贫穷国家 // impoverished areas 穷困地区// be impoverished by sth 因某物而贫穷 // impoverish the economy 导致经济困顿

ag最大网赌平台|官方网站写作例句:

(1). In the tide ofeconomic globalization, there exist some countries that are impoverished bya lack of advanced technology, so they can hardly benefit from globalizationand even become marginalized, which would further enlarge the gap between therich and poor.Tips: there existthere-be句式;that引导限定性定语从句;so连接并列句;which引导非限制性定语从句;a lack of表示缺乏;marginalized表示边缘化的)

在经济全球化的大潮中,有一些国家因为缺乏先进的技术而贫穷落后,因而很难从全球化中获利甚至会被边缘化,这会进一步拉大贫富差距。

 

integrate ['ɪntɪgreɪt]

·         使成整体,使结合;成为一体

常见学术词组搭配:

tightly/closelyintegrate 紧密整合 // integrate…with…使结合// integrate into 融入// international economic integration国际经济一体化 // accelerate/speed upintegration 加速一体化

ag最大网赌平台|官方网站写作例句:

(1). The boominginternational trade can closely integrate a wide range of resources ofdifferent countries, which enables many nations to share resources to achievethe goal of complementing each other’s strengths.Tips: which引导非限制性定语从句;a wide range表示多种多样的;achieve the goal表示实现目标;complement each other’s strengths表示优势互补)

国际贸易的繁荣很好地整合了不同国家多种多样的资源,使很多国家资源共享,实现了优势互补。

(2). The increased flow oftrade, capital, technology and people across national boundaries, especiallythe expansion of multinational companies, has accelerated internationaleconomic integration and the process of globalization.Tips: flow表示流动;across national boundaries表示跨越国界;expansion表示扩张;the process ofglobalization表示全球化进程)

国家间贸易、资金、技术和人口流动的增多,特别是跨国公司的扩张,加速了国际经济一体化和全球化的进程。

 

interaction [ɪntər'ækʃ(ə)n]

n. 相互影响;互动,交往

常见学术词组搭配:

increasedinteraction 互动的增多 // interaction with sb 与某人交往 // social interaction 社会交往 // face-to-faceinteraction 面对面互动

ag最大网赌平台|官方网站写作例句:

(1). The increasedinteraction between locals and foreigners helps to stimulate culturalexchanges, resulting in people understanding and accepting different culturesthat exist.Tips: resulting in非谓语动词做结果伴随状语;that引导定语从句;stimulate表示促进;culturalexchanges/communication表示文化交流)

当地人和外国人之间互动的增多促进了文化交流,使人们了解并接受存在的不同文化。

(2). During the process of interactionwith foreign staff in multinational companies, local employees have theopportunity to learn the work ethics and cultural conventions of anothercountry and vice versa, resulting in deeper understanding on mutual culturalbackground.Tips: resulting非谓语动词做伴随状语;work ethics表示工作理念,职业道德;cultural conventions表示文化传统;vice versa表示反之亦然;mutual表示相互的,彼此的)

在与跨国公司中外国员工交往的过程中,本地员工有机会了解到另一个国家的工作理念甚至是文化传统,反之亦然,因此他们对彼此文化背景的了解变得更加深刻。

 

invade [ɪn'veɪd]

v. 侵入;侵扰;涌入

常见学术词组搭配:

invadeforeign/local markets 侵入外国/当地市场 //cultural invasion 文化入侵 // full-scale invasion 全面侵入

ag最大网赌平台|官方网站写作例句:

(1). When powerfulmultinationals invade local markets with their goods, they often compellocal companies with fewer resources to go bankrupt and even withdraw from themarket.Tips: when引导时间状语从句;compel sb to do逼迫某人做某事;go bankrupt表示破产;withdraw from表示退出)

当实力强大的跨国公司用自己的商品侵入当地市场时,资源较少的本地公司往往会被迫走上破产甚至退出市场的道路。

(2). Native businessmenoppose the open trade and full-scale invasion of multinational companiesin different nations because they would destroy the native orthodox culture andput local industries in jeopardy.Tips: because引导原因状语从句;open trade表示开放的贸易;orthodox culture表示传统文化;put sth in jeopardy表示使某物处于危险状态)

本地商人反对贸易开放和跨国公司的全面侵入,因为这些会破坏当地的传统文化,还会使地方产业处于危险之中。

 

multinational [mʌltɪ'næʃ(ə)n(ə)l]

adj.跨国公司的;多国的 // n. 跨国公司

常见学术词组搭配:

multinationalcompanies/corporations/enterprises 跨国公司 //giant multinational 大型跨国公司 // leading multinational 的跨国公司

ag最大网赌平台|官方网站写作例句:

(1). A giantmultinational’s opening foreign branches in a specific country could createhundreds of thousands of job opportunities for its local citizens, andtherefore the unemployment rate would be lowered to some extent.Tips: opening非谓语动词做主语;and therefore连接并列句表示结果;foreign branches表示国外分支机构;hundreds of thousands of表示数十万的;unemployment rate表示失业率;lower表示降低)

在某个国家设立国外分支机构的大型跨国公司能够为当地居民创造数十万计的工作机会,因而会在一定程度上降低失业率。

 

state-of-the-art [,steɪɒv ðɪ'ɑ:t]

adj.先进的,顶尖的,达到高水准的

常见学术词组搭配:

state-of-the-arttechnology 先进技术 // state-of-the-art facilities 一流的现代化设施 // state-of-the-art healthcare 先进的医疗保健

ag最大网赌平台|官方网站写作例句:

(1). Local employees ofmultinational corporations can have access to the state-of-the-arttechnology, with which they could later create their own start-up companiesor work for local corporations, thereby promoting technological advances andeconomic growth in developing countries.Tips: with which引导非限制性定语从句;promoting非谓语动词做伴随状语;have access to表示可以接近;start-up companies表示创业公司;technologicaladvances/progress表示技术进步)

在跨国公司工作的当地员工可以接触到先进的技术,日后可以创立自己的公司或在当地企业工作,因而会促进发展中国家技术的进步和经济的发展。

(2). The internationalbusiness made possible by air travel and telecommunication has enabledbusinessmen from less developed countries to introduce the state-of-the-artfacilities from prosperous nations to develop and expand their business.Tips: made非谓语动词做后置定语;telecommunication表示远程通讯;introduce表示引入;prosperous表示繁荣富裕的;expand business表示壮大生意)

因航空旅行和远程通讯得益的国际商业使欠发达国家的商人们能够从富裕国家引入一流的现代化设施来发展壮大自己的生意。

 

sustainable [sə'steɪnəb(ə)l]

adj.可持续的

常见学术词组搭配:

sustainabledevelopment 可持续发展// achieve overall sustainable development 实现整体上的可持续发展 // sustainable growth 可持续增长

ag最大网赌平台|官方网站写作例句:

(1). The effectiveinteraction among countries at different levels has made it possible for theworld to achieve overall sustainable development.Tips: at different levels表示处于不同水平;make it possible for...todo表示使某事成为可能)

不同水平国家间的有效互动往来使世界实现整体上的可持续发展成为可能。

  

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